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However, it must be taken into account that this geocentric velocity must be corrected to find the correct impact velocity on the lunar surface. Thus, a correcting factor for the kinetic energy has to be applied, since the gravitational field of our planet gives rise to a larger impact velocity on Earth compared to the lunar case. For sporadic meteoroids, which can impact from random directions, this factor is around 1. Besides, by using an average bulk density for cometary meteoroids of 1. So, given that the size of the impactor is considerably higher than the largest meteoroids that caused the outburst of the SPE stream, and given that this outburst was more than one day earlier than our impact flash, we tend to think that a sporadic origin is perhaps more likely.

The derived sizes are small for ground-based observatories to identify them, but lunar orbiters can take images of the impact regions to recognize fresh craters and study them. The derived crater size is the largest for an impact flash ever reported, and if the crater is identified, the measurement of its diameter would allow us to give further constraints on the luminous efficiency, which is a poorly characterized parameter and is important to refine the impact flux on Earth.

In the following discussion about impact rates on the Earth, we have used energy rather than mass, since expressing impact rates as a function of the impactor mass would require a correct choice for the impact velocity.

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However, for impact rates given as a function of impactor energy, no critical assumptions about meteoroid velocity are necessary. According to the kinetic energy inferred for the impact flash discussed here, the impact rate on the whole Moon for fragments with an energy above This lunar impact rate can be translated into the corresponding terrestrial impact rate by scaling it according to the surface area of our planet about In addition, the previously mentioned correcting factor for the kinetic energy has to be also applied 1.

Thus, the impact energy of the lunar impact flash would be equivalent to an impact energy of The analysis of a Perseid lunar impact flash seems also to be inconsistent with a 0.

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Even though they do not provide an accurate figure of the upward increase that they found, they mention in the order of a factor 10 increase, which is coincident with our requirements. Cumulative number of impact events on Earth as a function of impact energy. The result derived from the impact flash analysed here is represented with a full black circle in this plot. The conclusions derived from this research are listed below.

With a peak brightness equivalent to mag 2. The energy released during the impact was of Two sources have been considered for the impactor. The identification of this crater in order to compare its actual size with the values obtained from our analysis could be a target for any current or future spacecraft orbiting the Moon. The actual size would help to constrain the luminous efficiency considerably, which is important for impact hazard computations.

Thus, a systematic monitoring of moon impact flashes but also of fireballs in the Earth's atmosphere would provide a more reliable impact frequency, especially if the luminous efficiency is well calibrated. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.


It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Open in new tab Download slide. Table 1. Open in new tab. Association of solar flares with coronal mass ejections accompanied by Deca-Hectometric type II radio burst for two solar cycles 23 and Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume , Issue 5, article id.

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Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume , Issue 6, article id. Solar radio bursts as a tool for space weather forecasting. Klein, K. Comptes rendus — Physique, Volume 19, Issue , p Earth, Moon, and Planets, Online First. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp.

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Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Volume 58, Issue 4, pp. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Volume 58, Issue 8, pp. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp. Higher-speed coronal mass ejections and their geoeffectiveness. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Volume 39, Issue 3, article id. Signature of a possible relationship between the maximum CME speed index and the critical frequencies of the F1 and F2 ionospheric layers: Data analysis for a mid-latitude ionospheric station during the solar cycles 23 and Type II solar radio burst band-splitting: Measure of coronal magnetic field strength.

Multi-instrument view on solar eruptive events observed with the Siberian Radioheliograph: From detection of small jets up to development of a shock wave and CME. Periodic behaviour of coronal mass ejections, eruptive events, and solar activity proxies during solar cycles 23 and On the relationship between filaments and solar energetic particles.

Sun-to-earth propagation of the June 21 coronal mass ejection revealed by optical, EUV, and radio observations. Comparative analysis of the proton generation efficiency during 17 March and 11 April solar flares. Solar energetic particle catalogs: Assumptions, uncertainties and validity of reports. Coronal flux ropes and their interplanetary counterparts. Extreme solar storms based on solar magnetic field. Solar wind diamagnetic structures as a source of substorm-like disturbances.

Understanding the twist distribution inside magnetic flux ropes by anatomizing an interplanetary magnetic cloud. Halo Coronal Mass Ejections during Solar Cycle reconstruction of the global scenario and geoeffectiveness. A probabilistic approach to the drag-based model. A11, 10 pp. A37, 14 pp. An operational solar wind prediction system transitioning fundamental science to operations.

A39, 21 pp. A40, 32 pp. Flux rope breaking and formation of a rotating blowout jet. Dispersively formed quasi-periodic fast magnetosonic wavefronts due to the eruption of a nearby mini-filament. Magnetic evolution linked to the interrelated activity complexes involving transequatorial coronal holes.

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Formation and dynamics of a solar eruptive flux tube. Nature Communications, Volume 9, id. Kink-induced full and failed eruptions of two coupled flux tubes of the same filament. New Astronomy, Volume 59, p. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejection accompanied with DH type II radio burst in relation with interplanetary magnetic field, geomagnetic storms and cosmic ray intensity.

New Astronomy, Volume 60, p. On some characteristics of large kinetic energy coronal mass ejections during New Astronomy, Volume 63, p. Physical Review Letters, Volume , Issue 13, id. Space weather at planet Venus during the forthcoming BepiColombo flybys. Planetary and Space Science, Volume , p. Coronal mass ejection hits mercury: A. Flares before and after coronal mass ejections. Disintegration of an eruptive filament via interactions with quasi-separatrix layers.

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Solar Physics, Volume , Issue 3, article id. Solar Physics, Volume , Issue 4, article id. Solar Physics, Volume , Issue 5, article id.