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If McCulloch and his team are successful, it would represent an unprecedented breakthrough in propulsion systems. It would be particularly applicable in space, where achieving the speeds necessary to reach escape velocity usually requires large amounts of chemical propellant. The downside of this, of course, is that rockets must carry their propellant with them on their journey. Unlike a traditional rocket engine, a QI-based thruster would simply need enough power to fuel an electric core. This core would be highly accelerated to produce the Unruh radiation that could be harnessed for propulsion using a conductive shield to dampen the Unruh waves.

The NASA researchers claimed to have produced a miniscule amount of thrust with their experimental engine, but attempts to replicate their results have turned up empty-handed. So far, some of the most convincing work on the EmDrive has focused on mach effects, a theory of acceleration first advanced by the Call State Fullerton physicist James Woodward in the early s.

As the acceleration of the object changes so too does the internal energy of the object, which manifests as a change in the resting mass of that body. Woodward says inertia results through the gravitational attraction of all the objects in the universe, whose gravitational force is related to their mass. This imbalance created in the process propels the object forward without expelling matter, in theory providing the foundation for a reactionless engine. When I asked Woodward if he thought that QI could be an alternative explanation for the observed EmDrive thrust, he emphatically rejected the theory.

According to Woodward, if inertia is explained by electromagnetic waves, then the neutron should be only two thirds the mass of a proton because of the way the electromagnetic field couples with electric charges. In reality, however, neutrons are just slightly more massive than protons. Since QI also depends on a type of electromagnetic wave Unruh radiation , Woodward argued, it is plagued by the same mathematical incongruities.

Woodward is hardly alone in his skepticism about the promise of QI.

Integrating History and Philosophy of Science

In an article written for Forbes last year, Rochester Institute of Technology physicist Brian Koberlein argued QI violated the laws of physics, particularly when it was applied to the EmDrive. Since these are each well-tested theories that form the basis of countless other theories, their violation would completely overturn all of modern physics. No one has ever shown any evidence against the theory. McCulloch dismissed the criticisms as misunderstandings of how QI works. For quantum-statistical reasons, that is, it must do that in order not to violate the Principle of Conservation of Energy unjustifiable appearing of energy from nothing or, by the same token, to respect the quantum Indetermination Principle of Heisenberg, which must be respected by all the particle-antiparticle pairs, which ideally fill the Universe itself, and them themselves have to disappear, sooner or later.

The aim of this work is, first, to set the basis for a formal model of science, then, it is to show that the laws of physics are its theorems. Necessarily, all theories that are the product of science are theorems of our model. Therefore, as we will argue, our model is the logical foundation of physics. Within the context of prior work our model is best understood as an axiomatic realization of the participatory universe envisioned by John Archibald Wheeler, in which the observer's practice of science brings about the reality he attempts to understand.

As our model is constructive of a mathematical structure isomorphic to nature, it deprecates Karl Popper's definition of science based on falsifiability. In our model, nature is understood as the "basket" which holds the proofs that all observations are formally verifiable and thus reproducible. For the universal case, the "basket" is a mathematical structure isomorphic to the physical universe. In this case, the theory is epistemologically complete, fundamental, predictive, free of physical baggage in the sense of Max Tegmark , logically necessary, guaranteed to survive falsifiability, and provably cannot be improved by any scientific means.

Authors: Tariq Khan Comments: 6 Pages. A pattern appears to exist in the Universe based on a foundational and simple rule.

It is possible that every aspect of our reality of objects and processes can be interpreted as systems with an apparent intent to preserve structure - as physical form or as information. Authors: Georgina Woodward Comments: 81 Pages. An abbreviated collection of work solving many puzzles of physics. In particular identifying category error in Relativity, the light clock argument and Quantum physics. The need for correct differentiation of different categories. Dispelling the paradoxes of relativity and the puzzle of supposed differences between the quantum and macroscopic scale.

Authors: Robert Yusupov Comments: 24 Pages.

In the early s, a bourgeois counter-revolutionary coup took place in the USSR in the first socialist country. In its progressive development, the country stopped and was thrown back for several decades. The bourgeoisie came to power in the country. An enormous blow was struck to all the healthy forces of society on the entire Soviet people. The people fell into capitalist slavery. The school of dialectical materialism was destroyed. Idealism became the state philosophy. The philosophy of idealism sees its main task as the philosophical justification of the anti-popular bourgeois system.

Although the school of dialectical materialism suffered considerable damage and it suffered great losses, it was not possible to destroy the philosophy of dialectical materialism itself. No one can do it. Dialectical materialism is the philosophy of nature itself, and no one can destroy nature. This article highlights some of the problems of the foundations of the nature, the Universe, physics, which were solved solely on the foundations of the philosophy of dialectical materialism.

Keywords: Marxist-Leninist philosophy, dialectical materialism, matter, time, Universe, physics.

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Authors: J. Tiago de Oliveira Comments: 25 Pages. Now, I send the same Notes with the relevant Errata. I will then send you an Addendum. The way space has been thought by physics remains an obstacle to the coherent integration between its various theories.

Gathering of philosophers and physicists unaware of modern reconciliation of Bayes and Popper

The authors seek, with the help of a fundamental analogy, to present a new path for their complete unification. Lara wrote, with the support of the other authors.

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The Authors seek, with the help of a fundamental analogy, to present a new path for their complete unification. Authors: Tariq Khan Comments: 3 Pages. Recent articles summarizing recent research noting the proclivity of renormalization techniques to solve self-organized criticality and deep learning could intimate that the challenges with the unification of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity, and with finding a formal solution for quantum decoherence, could be chimeras if the human observed nature of reality itself are actually renormalizations of an infinite fractal space-time that is intractable with current techniques.

Somsikov Comments: 3 Pages. The inaccuracy of understanding of the 1st law of physics called also by the first Newton law of motion or the law of inertia Galilee is revealed. Kaminsky Comments: 25 Pages. Abstract Why is physical reality exactly like it is, and not another? In order to understand this, first of all, you need to understand what physical reality is? What is the role of the observer? What is an observer?

To answer these questions, we will take a short but exciting trip into transcendental philosophy of Kant, Fichte and Husserl. Keywords: consciousness, time, quantum mechanics, existence, subjectivity, relativity, illusion, ontology. From pre-matter realm of information, through the Big Bang, to the states of matter in the universe today, this theory has it all.

Albert Einstein - Wikiquote

And, it is not new - it is older than the earliest archaeology. Authors: Anton. Comments: 41 Pages. The purpose of this study is to analyze the origin of the personality cult of Einstein and the myths associated with his name, based on various printed sources. Respond to this author's email address: info ersatz-systems dot com.

We instruct troll Mikko at Disqus to read the entire article twice before she starts typing. A box hides from view a cat with a radioactive source where the probability of decay or no decay is equal. In the course of one hour, the probability of the state of decay causes the demise of the cat, or the probability of the state of no decay causes not the demise of the cat.

Superposition is defined as both states rather than either state above, and is the red herring. Quantum theory asserts that either state implies both states concurrently as superposition. The state inside the box during the hour at any moment is not known exactly, but that does not mean both states are concurrent at any moment as superposition. However, before the end of the hour to open the box, interrupt the experiment, and force an inspection returns either state and hence falsifies a concurrent state of affairs of the red herring.

Authors: Georgina Parry Comments: 4 Pages. Uncovering the red herring in Schrodinger's cat thought experiment: Singular measurements of attributes called properties of particles or objects are relative. That is, they come from the relation with the particle or object under consideration rather than being sole property of it, by itself independently of the measurement relations.

Measurables such as orientation of rotation, velocity, energy, momentum are relational. What the state or value is found to be depends upon the relation with the observed or measured entity by which a singular outcome is obtained. Or at the macroscopic scale, when vision or hearing is involved the relation to the potential sensory stimuli, signals received and processed into what is seen. Whereas an intrinsic state of being is not relational but independent. A decayed and non decayed particle are different from each other because the decayed particle has lost something compared to the un-decayed and is therefore not an identical system to the un-decayed.

It might be regarded as a different object because that change has happened. A shattered flask of poison is not the same as an intact flask of poison. The shards of glass are different objects from the intact flask object. It is not a matter of relative perspective. Likewise dead and alive cat. The live cat has functioning metabolism, the dead does not. Which is not a matter of relative perspective but intrinsic difference in state of being. The change to the objects in the thought experiment make it dis-similar to the scenarios in quantum experiments.