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References

In mammals other than monotremes , the cochlea is extended still further, becoming a coiled structure in order to accommodate its length within the head. The organ of Corti also has a more complex structure in mammals than it does in other amniotes. The arrangement of the inner ear in living amphibians is, in most respects, similar to that of reptiles.

However, they often lack a basilar papilla, having instead an entirely separate set of sensory cells at the upper edge of the saccule, referred to as the papilla amphibiorum , which appear to have the same function. Although many fish are capable of hearing, the lagena is, at best, a short diverticulum of the saccule, and appears to have no role in sensation of sound. Various clusters of hair cells within the inner ear may instead be responsible; for example, bony fish contain a sensory cluster called the macula neglecta in the utricle that may have this function.

Although fish have neither an outer nor a middle ear, sound may still be transmitted to the inner ear through the bones of the skull, or by the swim bladder , parts of which often lie close by in the body. By comparison with the cochlea r system, the vestibular system varies relatively little between the various groups of jawed vertebrates. The central part of the system consists of two chambers, the saccule and utricle, each of which includes one or two small clusters of sensory hair cells.

All jawed vertebrates also possess three semicircular canals arising from the utricle, each with an ampulla containing sensory cells at one end. An endolymphatic duct runs from the saccule up through the head, and ending close to the brain. In cartilaginous fish , this duct actually opens onto the top of the head, and in some teleosts , it is simply blind-ending.

In all other species, however, it ends in an endolymphatic sac. In many reptiles, fish, and amphibians this sac may reach considerable size.

In amphibians the sacs from either side may fuse into a single structure, which often extends down the length of the body, parallel with the spinal canal. The primitive lampreys and hagfish , however, have a simpler system. The inner ear in these species consists of a single vestibular chamber, although in lampreys, this is associated with a series of sacs lined by cilia.


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Lampreys have only two semicircular canals, with the horizontal canal being absent, while hagfish have only a single, vertical, canal. The inner ear is primarily responsible for balance, equilibrium and orientation in three-dimensional space. The inner ear can detect both static and dynamic equilibrium.

Three semicircular ducts and two chambers, which contain the saccule and utricle , enable the body to detect any deviation from equilibrium. The macula sacculi detects vertical acceleration while the macula utriculi is responsible for horizontal acceleration. These microscopic structures possess stereocilia and one kinocilium which are located within the gelatinous otolithic membrane.

The membrane is further weighted with otoliths. Movement of the stereocilia and kinocilium enable the hair cells of the saccula and utricle to detect motion. The semicircular ducts are responsible for detecting rotational movement. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Outer ear. Pinna Tragus. Middle ear. Tympanic membrane Ossicles Malleus Incus Stapes.

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Inner ear. Vestibules Utricle Saccule Cochlea Semicircular canals. Main article: vestibulopathy. See also: Evolution of the cochlea. Human ear anatomy. Brown is outer ear.

Article information

Red is middle ear. Purple is inner ear. This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology. Wolfe et al. Auditory Neuroscience. MIT Press. Hyman's comparative vertebrate anatomy 3 ed. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved Elsevier Health Sciences. Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

Undersea Biomedical Research. The Vertebrate Body.

1.8 Step 7. Internal view of tympanic membrane and associated ossicles (isolated specimen)

Anatomy of hearing and balance. Auricle helix antihelix tragus antitragus intertragic notch earlobe Ear canal Auricular muscles Eardrum umbo pars flaccida. Manapuram, V. Manne, and K. Sepehr, H. Djalilian, J. Chang, Z. Chen, and B. Rosowski, H. Nakajima, and S. Margolis and D. Choma, A. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. Creazzo, and J. Kurokawa and R. Shanks and J. Katz, ed.

Merchant and J. Gulya, L. Minor, and D. Poe, eds. People's Medical Publishing House, , pp.

EFFECTS OF PERFORATIONS OF THE TYMPANIC MEMBRANE ON COCHLEAR POTENTIALS

Chakeres and M. Sorrentino and B. Gorek, eds. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

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Alert me when this article is cited. Click here to see a list of articles that cite this paper. A- Probe resting on the optical table; B: Probe held by a study investigator. A- hand held; B: Probe resting on the table. B: Cross-sectional OCT image of the middle ear. Two images obtained for two focal positions and slightly different angular orientations were stitched to display the morphology of all three ossciles within the same image.

Login or Create Account. Allow All Cookies. Biomedical Optics Express Vol. Chang, Caitlin Clancy, Daniel J. Express 7 , Accessible Open Access. Abstract We report the development of a novel otoscopy probe for assessing middle ear anatomy and function. Mapping the phase and amplitude of ossicular chain motion using sound-synchronous optical coherence vibrography Antoine Ramier, Jeffrey Tao Cheng, Michael E.


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