Quoted in Brodbeck, Brahms: Symphony No. In einem Werke, dem in vielfacher Beziehung hochinteressanten Trio op. Man begegnet dieser Art symbolischer Verwendung bedeutender Melodien in den Kompositionen von Brahms bis in die neueste Zeit herein. When it came to revising the trio, direct references to An die ferne Geliebte were swept away.
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Wasielewski had linked the finale of the Second Symphony with An die ferne Geliebte in , so Brahms was doubtless aware of the speculation such connections could foster. It is set in Hamburg. Whether intended or otherwise, anything construed as an allusion was method- ically eliminated. There is no real creating without hard work. That which you would call invention, that is to say, a thought, an idea, is simply an inspiration from above, for which I am not responsible, Downloaded by [Cornell University Library] at 07 April which is no merit of mine.
Yea, it is a present, a gift, which I ought even to despise until I have made it my own by right of hard work. Jim Samson Cambridge, , —59 p. They are intuitive. Long after their arrival I take them up and work very hard over them. I felt honored by the first words the master had directed at me. In order to make such a claim, Schenker had to present the great composers of the past in his image as much as he showed himself to be made in theirs. On the other, the piece itself appears to construct the Urlinie. Sure enough, there is evidence of many shared preoccupations between Brahms and Schenker.
Some are predictably broad: they shared reservations about Bruckner and the peda- gogical tradition of his teacher Simon Sechter, elevating the eighteenth-century theorist Johann Joseph Fux far above any contemporary authorities. Smith has explored. Even in the case of a very long song whose subsidiary phrases were extended and internally consistent, the principal key always had to be articulated by means of clear relationships, so that, so to speak, the sum of all the keys utilized in the piece combined to create an image of the tonic key in its activity.
Compositional planning and analytical retrospection seem to merge. Krebs, Litzmann, i, , trans. What had puzzled Clara is unclear; perhaps she had thought that the a b in question might have been a b b.
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The a b that Brahms preferred may have struck her as dubious because it lacks a resolving g. For the artist is now fully a hero; the analyst a high priest — and genius the ambrosia either possessed or divined.
In the moment when the composer supplants his imagination with the search for similarities, that which would otherwise readily seem organic to us sinks to mere thematicism — that is, to willed similarity. Often one guesses it only after a completely devoted examination of the art work , the composer would have preferred to bring about a completely dissimilar construction, but one can see how his imagination did not deviate from its initial cause, and forced a similar one upon him.
Its meanings are shown to emanate not from Kreisler Junior, or even from Brahms, but from a different kind of musical tradition, strengthened and purified through deperson- alization: the canon. Brahms made the most substantial alterations to the outer movements, cutting them ruthlessly to sharpen and tighten the musical discourse.
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Frisch, —7 p. Carl Schachter and Heidi Siegel Cambridge, , 26— Walter Willson Cobbett London, , —82 p. Schubring, trans. Brahms sacrificed the multifarious topoi from the first version, resulting in an exposition in which the difference between first and second subjects is sharpened and polarized rather than allowed to diffuse into plurality.
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In the original development, Brahms was keen to overlay the topoi from the exposition and to place them in dialogue with one another, but he paid less attention to harmonic coherence. Modulations are asserted by fiat or effected through chromatic chicanery from B minor to C major at bars —11, for instance , and a good deal of time is spent in the tonic minor, the subdominant and the relative minor, which would normally be avoided in order not to rehash the exposition or to detract from the impact of the recapitulation.
When revising the section, it is as if Brahms set himself the 84 Cook links the falling thirds of this theme to the Intermezzi op.
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My own position on this issue will emerge below. George Bozarth Oxford, , —88 pp. Relationships between the second thematic group of the first move- ment of the revised op. Analysis of the second thematic group in the first movement of the revised op. Keys visited in the development sections of the first movement of each version of op. Elsewhere, Brahms played on functional am- biguity: the original version moves from E minor to B minor though a sequential reiteration of the same material bars —94 , whereas the revised version toni- cizes B minor only after it has been prepared as the dominant of E minor bars —7.
In the earlier version, the first B major 6—4 chord is heard in bar , which clumsily signposts the recapitulation from the distance of a good 50 bars; in the revised version, the recapitulation is smuggled in under cover provided by a feature from its predecessor. Brahms took the E major to G minor modulation from the end of the original exposition bars —59 and placed it at the end of the revised development bars — Typically, the older Brahms resisted the temptation of the double return, preferring to present the recapitulation as a chromatogram showing the distinct separation of theme and key even though the remainder of the recapitulation follows the textbook right down to the skilful truncation of the first subject and bridge bars —14 and the subtle rescoring of the second subject bars ff.
It is disarmed as a dynamic structural element because its chief feature — that of return — is ambiguously blurred, and its potential to change the course of the exposition goes politely ignored. There are no fugal outgrowths here; only the sweet strains of the coda defy conventional expectations, as we shall see. Although the scherzo survived practically unscathed, the Adagio was subjected to the same brand of surgery as that practised on the first movement.
The replacement of the Am Meer allusion is particularly noteworthy: once again, a pastoral-tinged melody in E major is supplanted by a mournful cantilena in G minor. These four bars depart from an E major chord, which is congruent in the first version but surprising in the G minor context of the revised movement: the only preparation consists of bar 65, in which the piano and strings exchange G minor and E major chords seemingly without heeding each other.
Relationships between the first and second themes in the third movement of the revised op. Likewise, one of the secondary themes in the finale is an impassioned chain of appoggiaturas bars ff. It is significant that Brahms let the opening themes of every movement stand while replacing the second themes in all but the scherzo; each replacement is regularized to some degree.
In each case the new second theme is tidily differentiated from the first, cementing the proprieties of Beethovenian sonata form by ensuring the kind of clear dialectical framework that was lacking in the original version. Particularly in the first movement, the 88 On the other hand, a pair of suspiciously non-pastoral parallel fifths at bar 24, pointed out by Schubring in his review, is neatly circumvented in the revised version. Michael Musgrave and Bernard D. Sherman Cambridge, , 11—47 p. Loose ends are neatly tied, both structurally and thematically. In sum, Brahms seems to have carried out his revisionary work with clinical meticulousness.
Unhealthy stuff. Deutsche Kunst- und Musik- Zeitung, 1 March , Leopold Spitzer and Isabella Sommer, 2 vols. Vienna, , i, Now his real work as a Beethoven player begins.
But when it comes to breathing life and soul into the corpse, he lacks the necessary serum. He is merely a skilled surgeon. In this sense, Nietzsche was echoing the criticisms of his nemesis Max Nordau, who condemned both Wagner and Nietzsche for their depravity in his polemical screed Entartung Berlin, Spitzer and Sommer, i, Er ist eben nur ein geschickter Chirurg. It was as if he were making the experiment of stripping an antique statue of its lovely flesh, and forcing one to worship the workings of bone and muscle. Billroth, the founder of modern abdominal surgery, had been appointed Chair of Surgery at the University of Vienna in , at the age of In , he performed the first successful total laryngectomy, and Daniel F.
Viennese instrument makers were commissioned to create the mechanism to make speech possible. Kalbeck, i, , trans. Musgrave and Sherman, —72 p. Musgrave and Sherman, —43 p. See also W. Kozuschek and C.
Kozuschek, D. Lorenz and H. Thomas Basle, , 28— Think of all the stupid, ordinary people who surround one in the concert hall, of whom, in the best cases, fifty have enough sense and artistic feeling to apprehend the core of such a work at first hearing, not to mention understanding it. I am already in a bad mood at the prospect. Where will I find singers who can bring me the total pleasure of realizing what pre-echoes in my fantasy? Gottlieb- Billroth, Gottlieb-Billroth, —2. Schauffler, The Unknown Brahms, Roses observes that Billroth was noted for his unprecedented degree of self-discipline and statistical analysis.
His greatest achievements in the field of surgery were characterized by their arduous sci- entific evolution from the pathologic and animal laboratories to the operating theater. But Billroth himself tried to draw yet closer parallels between his medical activities and musical discourse. With Pohl, the fifth is weak and the third must over-exert itself in order to make itself heard. But the triad is still there, and it sounds pure and lovely, as is rarely the case with much stronger instruments. Oswald Jonas recounted that Billroth cut out the first line from the autograph of the A minor String Quartet, op.